The Roman soldiers would use a variety of ancient Roman spears including 2 handed lances, Javelins, and Thrusting spears.
The poles were made from ash, oak or hazel wood and the pointed heads of the spears were made of iron, or an iron alloy. The points could be secured to the end of the pole by lashing them tightly with leather ties.
Pilums bore a strong similarity to the javelins. These weapons were much heavier and created more short-range damage because both the head and shaft were made of iron.
The phalanx was often used by the Roman armies. This was a way the Romans could advance on the enemy while protecting their own ranks of soldiers with a strategic placement of shields and spears. The shields of ancient Rome were often made of heavy wood and then this was trimmed with iron and copper alloys. There were many different shapes used for these shields including rectangular, hexagonal, and oval.
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